Tag Archive | Human Exploration

Why Explore the Moon?

Planetary scientist Ian Crawford presents the case for our return to the Moon.

After a long hiatus following the Apollo missions forty years ago, the scientific exploration of the Moon is undergoing something of a renaissance. In the last few years a flotilla of robotic spacecraft has been sent to orbit the Moon by the space agencies of China, Europe, India, Japan, and the United States. This international concentration of effort is unprecedented in the history of space exploration. In part it reflects a renewed scientific interest in the Moon in its own right, and in part the aspirations of new space-faring nations to demonstrate their growing technical capabilities.

The primary scientific importance of the Moon arises from the fact that it has an extremely ancient surface, mostly older than 3 billion (i.e. 3 thousand million) years, with some areas extending almost all the way back to the origin of the Moon 4.5 billion years ago. It therefore preserves a record of the early geological evolution of a terrestrial planet, which more geologically active bodies, such as Earth, Venus and Mars, have long lost. The ancient lunar surface also preserves a record of everything that has fallen on it throughout the history of the Solar System. This includes fragments of meteorites and comets, as well samples of the ancient solar wind and, possibly, samples of the Earth’s oldest crust, blasted into space by giant meteorite impacts on our planet and collected by the Moon. Taken together, this is potentially a very rich scientific record of Solar System history which, with the possible exception of the much less accessible surface of Mercury, is unlikely to be preserved anywhere else. And it lies only three days away with current spacecraft technology.

Harrison Schmitt

The first, and so far only, geologist to visit the Moon: Harrison Schmitt stands next to a large boulder in the Taurus-Littrow Valley, visited by Apollo 17 in December 1972.

The idea that samples of the Earth’s earliest crust might be preserved on the Moon is particularly intriguing. Although we have strong grounds for believing that the Earth, like the rest of the Solar System, is 4.5 billion years old, the oldest actual Earth rocks found to-date are only 3.5 to 3.8 billion years old. All older rocks have been destroyed or buried by Earth’s active geology and climate. The oldest Earth rocks already show tantalising evidence for life having been present on our planet by that early time, but as we don’t have access to any older rocks we cannot be sure exactly how or when life first appeared on our planet. However, as noted above, ancient Earth rocks, blasted into space by meteorite impacts, may be preserved on the Moon. Perversely, therefore, our natural satellite may preserve fragments of Earth’s earliest crust, along with a record of the origin and evolution of life on our planet, which the Earth itself has destroyed. Finding such samples could become a holy grail of future lunar exploration.

The airless surface of the Moon has other scientific advantages as well. It is a superb site for some types of astronomical observation. The lunar far-side, in particular, is probably the best site for radio astronomy anywhere in the inner Solar System, as it is permanently shielded from artificial radio transmissions from Earth, and also shielded from solar radio emissions during the 14-day lunar night. Optical astronomy may also benefit from the establishment of lunar observatories. As the Moon lacks any obscuring atmosphere, the lunar surface is a much better site for astronomical telescopes than the surface of the Earth.

Altair lunar lander

The proposed Altair lunar lander. Although NASA's plans to return people to the Moon in the near future are currently in a state of flux, significant scientific advantages would follow from a renewed period of human lunar exploration.

To fully exploit the scientific potential of the Moon, to access the geological record of early Solar System history it undoubtedly contains, and to establish astronomical observatories on its surface, will require us once again to land astronauts on the lunar surface – and this time to stay. This must be the next step in lunar exploration, hopefully in the context of a fully international exploration programme, and science will be a major beneficiary. The Apollo missions demonstrated that human beings are highly efficient as explorers of planetary surfaces, and it is difficult to see how we will ever learn all that the Moon has to teach us about the history of the Solar System, and of our own planet, until people are once again actively exploring its ancient battered surface. Looking to the longer term, the human exploration of the Moon will also help develop essential experience that will be required for the human exploration of other locations in the Solar System, not least the planet Mars which also has much to tell us about the evolution of the Solar System and our place within it.

By helping to identify scientifically interesting places on the Moon, which may be explored when people do eventually return its surface, Moon Zoo participants can make a significant contribution to these exciting future activities.


Ian Crawford is a planetary scientist in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Birkbeck College London, and a member of the Moon Zoo Science Team.

Welcome to Moon Zoo

Moon Zoo launch has arrived! After over a year of planning, discussing and debating, Moon Zoo is finally being launched today. It is an exciting time for all the people who have been working hard on the project: from the geologists and planetary scientists who helped to conceive the scientific rationale behind the tasks, to the computer whizzes and Galaxy Zoo gurus who have made the whole thing possible.

We would especially like to thank all those at NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center and Arizona State University who planned, designed, built, calibrated and operated the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) and LRO mission. We are using LROC images that have been archived through the Planetary Data System. We are incredibly grateful that NASA and the LROC team is willing to share these images with the rest of the world so that we can all enjoy looking at the surface of our nearest neighbour. If you would like to know more about the LROC camera I suggest taking at look at their great website and more information about the LRO mission itself can be seen at here.

So, down to it. Why should you spend your time working hard on Moon Zoo tasks? Well there are several pages on this site that will help to explain the science behind Moon Zoo in more detail, but in short we hope that Moon Zoo data will provide new insights into the geological history of the Moon from volcanic eruptions to asteroid impact events. Studying LROC images of the lunar surface provides a close up view that has never been seen before and we want to use this powerful new dataset to investigate the nature of the lunar surface. We hope to collect a database of the size and dimensions of small (less than 2 km) lunar craters that will be helpful not only to understanding impact cratering processes on the Moon, but also that can help studying the history of impact bombardment throughout the inner Solar System from Mars, to Mercury and even here on Earth.

We want you to spot lunar geological features that we think are really interesting – from billion-year-old volcanic vent sites to curving lava channels, to brand new impact craters that might have formed in the last forty years. You can see examples of these types of things on the Moon Zoo tutorial page. We also want you to help find out which parts of the Moon are covered with boulders so that we can develop hazard maps that could be used by future spacecraft and human exploration missions to plan the best and worst sites to land on the lunar surface! There are a lot of things to do in Moon Zoo and we have more planned for the future. Most of all – just have fun looking at the amazing diversity of the lunar surface – I certainly have not got bored of looking through these images and hope that you are as equally excited to explore our Moon.

Hope that you enjoy helping out with the investigation and please do leave comments here on the blog, and on the Moon Zoo Forum if you have any feedback, suggestions or questions.